What is iso dating term
By Vexen Crabtree It is logical, with the biggest denominators being listed first the same way as numbers, times and weights are , making it easily sortable and utterly clear. The International Organization for Standardization specification for the International Date Format is the ISO format, adopted so far by the computer industry in general due to the advantages of sorting by dates in filenames , United Nations, commerce groups, scientific communities and some Western governments, although most individuals generally continue to use culture-specific date formats. The full standard runs to a heady length of 33 pages. Wouldn't it be wonderful if there were an internationally agreed standard?
1.5 What do all these abbreviations like "ISO" and "SWM" and "GM" and "SWCF" mean?
Observations were made in a bed MICU and nursing actions recorded in terms of model attributes. Data revealed nurses perform, yet do not document all actions. Thus in this setting, the existing documentation system does not adequately represent all aspects of nursing practice. The purpose of nursing documentation is to represent clinical practice in the patient record.
Recording nursing care in an unstructured fashion, however, does not allow us to examine this documentation across patients or across institutions 2 , 3. Accurate documentation in a standardized format enables the collection and organization of nursing data for the analysis of nursing outcomes 4. The need to identify, name and classify nursing phenomena, in particular diagnoses, interventions and outcomes of patient care has demonstrated the importance of developing nursing terminologies 5 , 6.
A terminology may be described as a set of terms adopted by experts within a subject field to represent a system of concepts specific to that field 7. The relationship among these concepts provides the basis for standardized systems that enables the organization of knowledge within a discipline 8. As nursing classification systems have been developed and computer technology has advanced, it has become possible to measure and evaluate nursing-sensitive outcomes 9. In recent years, research has focused on the development of reference terminology models that may be used to bridge the gap between terms used in nursing documentation and computer database systems 9 , 4.
Thus a RTM includes not only the sets of terms to describe relevant concepts, but also specifies the way in which individual concepts may be linked to create compositional expressions 2. To date, research has primarily focused on the ability of RTMs to map terminologies from various nursing classification systems or has evaluated the ability of a RTM to represent existing nursing documentation 3 , 6 , 9 , Moss et al.
The authors reported favorably on the use of RTMs for exploring nursing practice through documentation, and suggested that the ISO RTM for Nursing Action warranted consideration by information system developers 9. Hardiker supports the value of the standard in evaluating existing terminologies. However given that the standard only provides a sample of diagnosis and action decompositions, he identifies that validation work is necessary to ensure that the models are representative of all suitable nursing diagnoses and nursing actions This supports the need to test the practical application of these models in nursing practice.
To design documentation systems that accurately represent nursing actions, it is first necessary to describe the characteristics of nursing actions in practice. The purpose of this study was to use the ISO RTM for Nursing Action as a framework for analyzing the practice patterns of nurses working in a medical intensive care unit.
What makes this study unique is the direct application of the ISO RTM for Nursing Action to dissect nursing actions in practice, rather than attempting to map existing nursing classification terms for nursing action to the RTM. Four research questions were addressed in this study:. What are the characteristics of actions utilized by MICU nurses during the course of their nursing practice?
What effect do education level, years working as a RN, or time working on the unit have on the types of actions performed? Patients admitted to the MICU frequently require advanced care including invasive hemodynamic monitoring, ventilator support and continuous hemofiltration dialysis. Experience working as a nurse varied from four months to 22 years and time working on the unit varied from one month to 12 years.
This was an observational study of nursing actions. Observations of RNs were conducted in two-hour intervals during regular, hour morning or evening shifts. The researcher followed individual nurses during the course of their work, observing and recording each nursing action, in terms of the ISO model attributes described below. Data from a total of ten non-consecutive, two-hour observation periods were collected; no nurse was observed twice.
Every effort was made to remain as unobtrusive as possible so as to not interfere with the activities of the nurse being observed. The unit of analysis for this study was nursing action. Nursing action is defined by the ISO as actions that have the attributes of target, recipient of care, means, route and site as outlined in the ISO Reference Terminology Model for Nursing Action, Semantic descriptors were assigned for all applicable action attributes.
Prior to any data collection, a study of action descriptors from other nursing classification systems was made in order to provide the researcher with a broader vocabulary from which to draw upon when selecting descriptors for the present study. Actions that were observed simultaneously, such as drawing arterial blood gases ABGs and consoling the patient or changing a dressing and educating the patient were recorded as separate actions to capture the complexity of actions nurses perform in caring for patients.
Observations of nursing actions were recorded on a preprinted data collection sheet with attributes derived from the ISO Reference Terminology Model for Nursing Action, These attributes include target, recipient of care, means, route and site and are described below. The descriptors recorded for this study were generated by the researcher at the time an action was observed.
For each nursing action, a descriptor term was entered under each attribute that applied to that action on the data collection form, thus enabling decomposition of each action into its corresponding attributes. Definitions of the model attributes guided the decomposition and labeling of action components. The following example illustrates how actions were decomposed.
As necessary, clarification of an action was made by consulting with the nurse being observed, thereby validating the use of a given descriptor term when a question arose. Any discrepancies were recorded. The nurse was also asked the following questions:. Data were analyzed using SPSS This analysis determined the types of actions used in MICU nursing practice, their semantic descriptors, semantic descriptor frequency, and how these actions would be represented in an information system by the ISO model.
The effect of education level, years of experience as an RN and years working in the MICU on the types of actions performed was examined across participants. Informed consent was obtained prior to observations. No personally-identifying data regarding nurses or patients was recorded. Data were secured during and after the study conclusion. Permission to conduct this study was obtained from the hospital in which the unit resides and Institutional Review Board. Data consisted of descriptor terms to designate each action and each attribute that applied to that action, target, recipient of care, means, route and site.
The final data set consisted of 1, actions performed by the 10 nurses over 20 hours. The maximum number of actions performed by any nurse was and the minimum number was All attributes were utilized in recording descriptors during data collection. These values are depicted in Figure 1 , below. A total of 68 descriptors were used to identify the actions performed by nurses in the MICU. These categories are not meant to be definitive, but only serve as a more accessible way to view these data.
In fact, Table 2 , below, provides the most frequently used descriptors of target in the five most frequently occurring actions. The most frequently used descriptors specified physical locations. All of the nurses validated the selection of descriptors made by the researcher. There was no significant difference ANOVA between the number of interventions performed by nurses on the basis of years of experience, time on the unit, or educational level in the categories of assessing, documenting, or comforting.
The ISO RTM for Nursing Action has the potential to not only evaluate the depth and breadth of nursing care by identifying essential nursing actions that might not be documented, but also to provide a means of capturing those actions into a more suitable documentation system. Others have reported difficulty in fully describing an action by assigning only one term per model category. Hwang et al. In this study, we could have more fully described actions by combining two or three target terms.
This approach would maintain the combinatorial nature of the model while increasing the richness of nursing documentation. A review of this study data revealed that not all actions performed by nurses are documented, showing that the existing methods of documentation in this unit are inadequate to capture all actions performed by nurses. The nursing documentation in this unit is almost entirely related to reporting patient physiological information with little documentation related to interventions provided by the nurse.
These findings are consistent with those of studies of information tasks in intensive care units 13 , One of the problems associated with this discrepancy is that it casts doubt on our ability to use nursing documentation as an accurate representation of reality. Although the decomposition of nursing actions was validated by the nurses being observed, the validity and reliability of these results could have been strengthened through other review methods.
For example, videotaping of a randomly selected set of observation sessions would allow others to independently code each nursing action. This review would serve two purposes: However, videotaping would impose a much higher level of intrusion both for nurses and patients. In the present study the anonymity of nurses, patients, and families was maintained.
The addition of another attribute would be beneficial to fully support the representation of all actions. This study has demonstrated the potential value of using reference terminology models to examine nursing actions in practice and documentation. In the future, information system developers may be able to incorporate this model, or aspects of this model, into computerized documentation systems to improve their ability to represent nursing actions and permit the reuse of these data to support nursing practice.
We would like to acknowledge the support and consultation of Dr. Ellen Buckner during the course of this study. We also acknowledge Ryan Splittgerber for his assistance in data analysis and Dr. Michael Frost for comments on the manuscript. Most of all, we would like to thank the nurses who agreed to participate in this study for their generosity and support. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
This is an Open Access article: This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Introduction The purpose of nursing documentation is to represent clinical practice in the patient record. Four research questions were addressed in this study: What are the types of actions performed by nurses in the MICU? Data collection This was an observational study of nursing actions. The nurse was also asked the following questions: Do these examples accurately reflect your actions?
If not, what do you feel was missed or omitted? Do you have any other comments or suggestions? Protection of Human Participants Informed consent was obtained prior to observations.
This article is from the Internet Personals: Advice for Gay Men FAQ, by Fred Young [email protected] and Dean Esmay [email protected] with numerous contributions by others. Not everyone uses these abbreviations, but, they are a common. shorthand for indicating marital status. Trying to decipher an online dating profile? Keep this list of dating acronyms handy and you'll understand internet dating lingo in no time.
The calendar used throughout the world today is the Gregorian calendar. It is sometimes called a "Christian" calendar, and additional historic information about this calendar, and its precursor, the Julian calendar, are available in the history of the Cristian calendar section. The Gregorian calendar is the one commonly used today.
We are here to provide you with the ISO meaning and give you some examples of its uses and its users. What does ISO mean? In Search Of.
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Paragraph 1 is base rule text. In plain terms, the first paragraph states that when incentive stock options ISOs become available to the shareholder for exercise via a new option grant, existing vesting schedule, etc. For most situations, the calculation will be straightforward. However, there exist a number of scenarios that can make this calculation more complex. An employee receives an ISO grant exercisable into , shares.
For formatting functions, refer to Section 9. All the functions and operators described below that take time or timestamp inputs actually come in two variants: For brevity, these variants are not shown separately. This expression yields true when two time periods defined by their endpoints overlap, false when they do not overlap. The endpoints can be specified as pairs of dates, times, or time stamps; or as a date, time, or time stamp followed by an interval. When a pair of values is provided, either the start or the end can be written first; OVERLAPS automatically takes the earlier value of the pair as the start. This means for instance that two time periods with only an endpoint in common do not overlap. When adding an interval value to or subtracting an interval value from a timestamp with time zone value, the days component advances or decrements the date of the timestamp with time zone by the indicated number of days.
Observations were made in a bed MICU and nursing actions recorded in terms of model attributes. Data revealed nurses perform, yet do not document all actions.
The International Organization for Standardization ISO date format is a standard way to express a numeric calendar date that eliminates ambiguity. For example, North Americans usually write the month before the date.
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This paper discusses the usage and representation of dates in micro-history data. Clock times are not examined in great depth on the basis that they would nearly always be used to represent very recent events, and the modern hour and hour clock times are now ubiquitous. Some people reading this may wonder why dates are such an issue. Even GEDCOM suffers from portability problems because some products do not adhere strictly to its prescribed date convention. However, that date format is still an English form and contrasts with the ISO international standard. The ISO standard, in turn, only copes with the Gregorian calendar and so cannot be used for other calendar systems such as the Julian calendar. On top of all this, the date will have some degree of imprecision or granularity associated with it that must be represented unambiguously. At the heart of this is a fundamental requirement that some people may not appreciate at first. There is a written form of a date and a computer-readable form, and both are required in the micro-history data. The written form may have been transcribed from some external source but it is still essentially a humanly readable version of that date.
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According to the international standard for calendar dates, ISO , both systems are acceptable. The Anno Domini year—numbering system was introduced by a Christian monk named Dionysius Exiguus in the 6th century. The year count starts with year 1 in the Gregorian calendar. This is supposed to be the birth year of Jesus, although modern historians often conclude that he was born around 4 years earlier. The expression Common Era is also no new invention, it has been in use for several hundred years. In English, it is found in writings as early as
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